IJCEM Copyright © 2008-All rights reserved. Published by e-Century Publishing Corporation, Madison, WI 53711
Int J Clin Exp Med 2010;3(4):248-269

Review Article
Bone marrow and umbilical cord blood human mesenchymal stem cells: state of
the art

Arianna Malgieri,  Eugenia Kantzari, Maria Patrizia Patrizi, Stefano Gambardella

Department of Biopathology, Genetics Unit, Tor Vergata University of Rome, Italy; Future Health Italia, Rome Italy; Fondazione Livio
Patrizi, Rome, Italy; Bios International, Rome, Italy.

Received July 29, 2010; accepted August 30, 2010; available online September 7, 2010

Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells present in all tissues, as part of the perivascular
population. As multipotent cells, MSCs can differentiate into different tissues originating from mesoderm ranging from bone and
cartilage, to cardiac muscle. MSCs are an excellent candidate for cell therapy because they are easily accessible, their isolation is
straightforward, they can be bio-preserved with minimal loss of potency, and they have shown no adverse reactions to allogeneic
versus autologous MSCs transplants. Therefore, MSCs are being explored to regenerate damaged tissue and treat inflammation,
resulting from cardiovascular disease and myocardial infarction (MI), brain and spinal cord injury, stroke, diabetes, cartilage and bone
injury, Crohn’s disease and graft versus host disease (GvHD). Most of the application and clinical trials involve MSCs from bone
marrow (BMMSCs). Transplantation of MSCs from bone marrow is considered safe and has been widely tested in clinical trials of
cardiovascular, neurological, and immunological disease with encouraging results. There are examples of MSCs utilization in the
repair of kidney, muscle and lung. The cells were also found to promote angiogenesis, and were used in chronic skin wound
treatment. Recent studies involve also mesenchymal stem cell transplant from umbilical cord (UCMSCt). One of these demonstrate
that UCMSCt may improve symptoms and biochemical values in patients with severe refractory systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE),
and therefore this source of MSCs need deeper studies and require more attention. However, also if there are 79 registered clinical trial
sites for evaluating MSC therapy throughout the world, it is still a long way to go before using these cells as a routinely applied therapy
in clinics.(IJCEM1007006).

Keywords: Umbilical cord blood, mesenchymal stem cells, regenerative medicine, cell therapy, umbilical cord blood banking

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Address all correspondence to:
Arianna Malgieri,
Biopathology Department
Tor Vergata University of Rome
Via Montpellier 1,  00133 Rome (Italy).
Tel: +39/06/72596079; Fax: +39/06/20427313.
E-mail address: