Review Article Bone marrow and umbilical cord blood human mesenchymal stem cells: state of the art
Arianna Malgieri, Eugenia Kantzari, Maria Patrizia Patrizi, Stefano Gambardella
Department of Biopathology, Genetics Unit, Tor Vergata University of Rome, Italy; Future Health Italia, Rome Italy; Fondazione Livio Patrizi, Rome, Italy; Bios International, Rome, Italy.
Received July 29, 2010; accepted August 30, 2010; available online September 7, 2010
Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells present in all tissues, as part of the perivascular population. As multipotent cells, MSCs can differentiate into different tissues originating from mesoderm ranging from bone and cartilage, to cardiac muscle. MSCs are an excellent candidate for cell therapy because they are easily accessible, their isolation is straightforward, they can be bio-preserved with minimal loss of potency, and they have shown no adverse reactions to allogeneic versus autologous MSCs transplants. Therefore, MSCs are being explored to regenerate damaged tissue and treat inflammation, resulting from cardiovascular disease and myocardial infarction (MI), brain and spinal cord injury, stroke, diabetes, cartilage and bone injury, Crohn’s disease and graft versus host disease (GvHD). Most of the application and clinical trials involve MSCs from bone marrow (BMMSCs). Transplantation of MSCs from bone marrow is considered safe and has been widely tested in clinical trials of cardiovascular, neurological, and immunological disease with encouraging results. There are examples of MSCs utilization in the repair of kidney, muscle and lung. The cells were also found to promote angiogenesis, and were used in chronic skin wound treatment. Recent studies involve also mesenchymal stem cell transplant from umbilical cord (UCMSCt). One of these demonstrate that UCMSCt may improve symptoms and biochemical values in patients with severe refractory systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and therefore this source of MSCs need deeper studies and require more attention. However, also if there are 79 registered clinical trial sites for evaluating MSC therapy throughout the world, it is still a long way to go before using these cells as a routinely applied therapy in clinics.(IJCEM1007006).
Address all correspondence to: Arianna Malgieri, Biopathology Department Tor Vergata University of Rome Via Montpellier 1, 00133 Rome (Italy). Tel: +39/06/72596079; Fax: +39/06/20427313. E-mail address: email@example.com