IJCEM Copyright © 2008-All rights reserved. Published by e-Century Publishing Corporation, Madison, WI 53711
Int J Clin Exp Med 2010;3(1):33-40.

Review Article
Integration of ER Stress, Oxidative Stress and the Inflammatory
Response in Health and Disease

Kezhong Zhang

Center for Molecular Medicine & Genetics, Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Karmanos Cancer Institute, The Wayne State
University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, USA

Received December 11, 2009; accepted December, 2009; available online January, 2010

Abstract: There has been much effort to define the molecular basis by which pathophysiological stimuli initiate and/or propagate the
inflammatory response. Recent research endeavors on stress response from a cellular organelle called the endoplasmic reticulum
(ER) shed new light on the understating of the molecular basis of the inflammatory response and its interaction with other
intracellular stress signaling pathways. As a protein folding compartment and dynamic calcium store, the ER plays major roles in
sensing cellular stress and mediating highly-specific signaling pathways termed Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). The UPR
signaling emanating from the ER has been identified as one of the avenues leading to the inflammatory response. The integration
of ER stress, oxidative stress, and the inflammatory response is critical to the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases. In this brief review,
we discuss some representative evidence for the integration of ER stress, oxidative stress, and inflammation in health and

Key words: ER stress, Oxidative stress, Inflammation, Unfolded protein response, Metabolic factors, Inflammatory disease

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